Khabarovsk Krai

Khabarovsk
Krai

Khabarovsk Krai ranks third in Russia in terms of area. It is washed by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. It borders China. The territory of this region features unique landscapes, numerous rivers and lakes, a rare combination of plants and animals. The regional railway network links Europe and the central regions of Russia with the Asian countries. Khabarovsk Airport is the largest international air hub of the Russian Far East. International passenger and cargo river transportation is carried out on the Amur river.

The administrative center is the city of Khabarovsk.

Area 787 633 km².

Population 1 333 294 people (2018).

Population density 1,69 people per km² (2018)

Web site: www.khabkrai.ru

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Chukotka Autonomous Region Magadan Region Kamchatka Krai Sakhalin Region Khabarovsk Krai Amur Region Primorsky Krai Jewish Autonomous Region Republic of Buryatia Zabaykalsky KraiRussian Far East

History

The beginning of exploration of the Far East territories dates back to the XVII cen-tury. The Russian explorers went to the east to see the new lands, bring them un-der the tsar's government, and establish trade links. Nikolaevsly military post (now the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur) which became the main naval base of the country on the coast of the Pacific Ocean was founded at the mouth of Amur River in 1850. More than three thousand people including many dissident Old Believers were resettled to Amur region. In 1884, the Priamur Governorate General was formed as part of Transbaikal, Amur and Primorsky regions with the center in Khabarovsk. Under the Soviet government, the territory occupied by these areas was renamed Far Eastern Krai. In 1938, it was divided into Khabarovsk and Pri-morsky Krais. In 1953, Magadan region left Khabarovsk Krai and formed an inde-pendent subject to which Chukotka Autonomous District was transferred from Kamchatka region. The Jewish Autonomous Region left Khabarovsk Krai in 1991.

Geographical location

Khabarovsk Krai is located in the eastern part of the Russian Federation. In the north, it borders Magadan region and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), in the west - Amur region, in the southwest - the Jewish Autonomous Region and China, and in the southeast - Primorsky Krai.

From the north-east, the region is washed by the Sea of Okhotsk, from the south-east by the Sea of Japan. Tatarsky and Nevelskogo Straits separate the region from Sakhalin Island. In addition to the continental part, the region includes several islands the largest of which are Shantarskie islands.

The total length of the coastline is about 2500 km, including the islands 3390 km.

A part of the southern border of Khabarovsk Krai is the state border between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China.


Time zone

The entire Khabarovsk Krai is located in the 8th time zone (MSK +7). The difference between the local time and the Moscow time makes +7 hours. The time offset relative to UTC makes +10:00.

Physical and geographical characteristics

The territory of the region stretches for 1800 km from south to north and for 125-750 km from west to east. The total area of Krai makes 787,633 km², which is 4.5% of the entire territory of Russia. In terms of area, Khabarovsk Krai is the 4th largest federal subjects of the Russian Federation.

The main part of the territory is occupied by numerous mountain ranges and plateaus with altitudes ranging from 500 to 2500 m.

The main mountain ranges are Sihote-Alin, Suntar Khayata, Dzhugdzhur, Bureinsky, Dusse-Alin, Yam-Alin . The highest peak is Mount Berril (2933 m), the lowest point is the sea level.

Natural resources

The region is rich in timber, mineral, fish, and other natural resources.

The river network of the region has more than 200 thousand large and small rivers and 55 thousand lakes. The largest rivers are Amur, Amgun, Tunguska, Bureya, Tumnin, Anyu; lakes - Chukchagirskoye, Bolon, Udyl, Orel, BBolshoye Kizi. The rivers and lakes are populated by one hundred species of fishes including sturgeon ones.

The region is one of the most forested regions of the Russian Federation.

The most profitable in economic terms and the most strategically important minerals are coal and brown coal, hydrocarbon raw materials, gold, platinum, tin, copper, building materials, underground water.

Climate

The climate is continental, with well-expressed monsoon features. Climate conditions change when moving from north to south of the region and depend on proximity to the sea, as well as shape and nature of the relief. Winter is long, snowy, and severe. The cold season of the year lasts for about 6 months, from the end of October till the end of April. Mean January temperature is −22C in the south and − 40C in the north and from −18 C to −24 C on the coast. In most of the terri-tory, the summer is relatively warm and humid. Mean July temperature in the south makes +20 C; in the north it is about +15C. The annual precipitation rate ranges from 400-600 mm in the north to 600-800 mm in the plains and eastern slopes of the ridges. In the south of the region, up to 90% of precipitation falls from April till October, especially heave rainfall is observed in July and August.

Flora and fauna

The territory of Khabarovsk Krai is beautiful pristine nature with mountain relief and diverse forest areas. The diversity of natural formations, landscapes, numerous rivers, lakes, and a rare combination of plants and animals makes this land absolutely unique.


There are many forests and taiga in the region. Larch and oak larch forests grow on the Amur lowland. Larch, spruce, oak forests occupy half of the territory. Considerable areas of Amur and Evoron-Tugur lowlands are covered by swamps.

Fauna of the region is diverse. It includes the following animals: musk deer, reindeer, elk, brown bear, lynx, wolf, otter, sable, fox, Indian marten, mink, and other valuable fur species. Roe deer, Manchurian deer, wild boar inhabit the mixed forests. There are over 100 species of freshwater fishes. Pacific herring, flounder, smelt, halibut, pollock, navaga, mackerel, chum salmon, salmon and the sea animals - white whale, seal, sea lion - can be found in the coastal sea waters.

The Red Book of Khabarovsk Krai includes 167 species of plants and mushrooms, 127 species of animals. Some of the, are the rarest species listed in the International Red Book.

Soils

The large extent from south to north and from west to east creates a variety of soil conditions. Soils with a bleached horizon are widespread mainly in the inhabited agricultural part of Khabarovsk Krai.

In Khabarovsk, Vyazemsky, Lazo, Bikinsky, Nanaisky, and Komsomolsky districts, this kind of soil forms the main fund of agricultural lands that are located on slopes of foothills and adjacent ridges and valleys.

Mountain, brown forest soils can be found on the mountain slopes. Lowlands are filled with peat and gley and peat and marsh soils.

By mechanical composition, soils of Khabarovsk Krai mainly relate to heavy and medium loams.

Population

The share of urban population exceeds 82%. National composition: Russians 91.8%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Nanais 0.9%, Koreans 0.6%, Tatars 0.6%, other nationalities 4.0%.

Administrative and territorial division

Khabarovsk Krai includes 6 cities of regional importance (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Amursk, Bikin, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, Sovetskaya Gavan), 5 intra-urban districts (5 districts of Khabarovsk), 17 districts, 1 city of district importance (Vyazemsky), 18 workers' settlements, 412 rural settlements.

The municipal structure of Khabarovsk Krai includes 233 municipalities including 2 urban districts, 17 municipal districts, 23 towns and 191 rural settlements.

Economy

The economy of Khabarovsk Krai is multifaceted and is based on developed and diversified industrial production and transport services of main cargo flows.

The key sectors of the region's economic complex are industry (21.7% of the gross regional product), transport and communications (20.3%), trade (15.7%). The basic industry sectors are machine-building complex, fuel and power supply complex, metal ores mining, food production, metallurgy.

Khabarovsk Krai has the leading positions in the unified transport system of the Far East. The length of the railway network of general purpose makes 2.1 thousand km. It is divided into the sections of Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur lines that connect Europe and the central regions of Russia with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Vanino Kholmsk ferry line connects the mainland railway network with the railway of Sakhalin Island.

The length of inland navigable waterway reaches 2.8 thousand km. The largest river ports are located in Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The region has access to the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan by waterways. Vanino, Sovetskaya Gavan and De-Kastri are major international seaports.

Khabarovsk Krai lies at the crossing of the international air transport corridors. Airfields of various classes are actively used in the region. The largest international airport in the Far East - Khabarovsk (Novy) - accepts aircrafts of all types. Local airlines provide a wide range of aviation services.

The road network is concentrated mainly in the south of Khabarovsk Krai. The region's territory is crossed by highways of federal importance: Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, Chita - Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk - Nakhodka.

Education

The educational network includes 929 educational establishments of all levels with 295,800 students and pupils. This includes more than 20 higher educational institutions and their branches.

More than 12.5 thousand new pre-school educational institutions have been created in the territory of Khabarovsk Krai since 2011. 27 kindergartens were renovated or built including a kindergarten for 125 children opened in the city of Khabarovsk in 2017 and a kindergarten for 45 children created at the school in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. 4 new schools were opened in 2017. A school for 560 pupils in the city of Khabarovsk and a school for 140 pupils in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur were opened after the renovation. Construction of the school in the remote village of Mariinsky Ulchsky district for 160 pupils has been completed.

Culture

The network of cultural institutions of the region consists of 657 units (in-cluding 6 theatres, regional Philharmonic Hall, 18 museums (with branches), 9 cin-emas and cultural and leisure facilities equipped with cinemas, regional arts college, 40 children's arts schools (with branches), 4 amusement parks, 2 zoos and 2 botan-ical gardens, regional circus, 309 libraries, 259 cultural and leisure institutions, re-search and production center for protection and use of historical and cultural land-marks.

Religion

There are 190 religious organizations registered in the region, 94 of them are Protestant (Baptists 18; Pentecostals 16; Evangelists 30; Presbyterians 12; the Seventh-day Adventists 9; others 8), which accounts for about 50% of all religious organizations registered in Khabarovsk Krai.

Amur Metropolitanate of the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate is a religious organization with the greatest parish. The number of parishioners makes about 70,000.

The Muslim organizations of the region subordinate to two religious departments: the Central Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Russia with parish of about 10 000 people and the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Asian part of Russia with parish of about 1 500 people.

Judaism is represented by three organizations with the total parish of about 4 000 people.

The Old Belief in the region includes religious associations and groups in cities: Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Amursk, Sovetskaya Gavan, Vanino; and also in the villages: Mayak, Izvestkovy, Dubovy Mys, and some other settlements on the lower Amur. According to the Old Believers, the main places of residence of people adhering to this religion are located in the following municipal districts: Bikinsky (2 thousand people), Nanaisky (about 3 thousand people), Komsomolsky (2 thousand people), Ulchsky (2 thousand people), Khabarovsk (1 thousand people)

Pokrovsk community of the city of Khabarovsk was registered in 1988 and Khabarovsk Protection of the Blessed Virgin community of Old Believers was founded in 2002. The head is the priest Alexander (Chukalenko Alexander Ivanovich), the ikonom (steward) of Irkutsk-Amur and the Far East of the Russian Orthodox Old Belief Church.

Currently, the Khabarovsk community is the organizational and religious center of the Old Believers of Khabarovsk Krai.