Magadan Region is one of the Russian Far North regions and has the severe climate. The region is rich in mineral resources. Magadan Region is one of the largest gold-bearing areas in the world and the Russian leader by production of silver. The region has developed fishing and fish processing sectors; some of the products are exported.
The administrative center is the city of Magadan
Area — 462 500 km².
Population — 144 091 people (2018).
Population density — 0,31 people per km² (2018)
Web site: www.49gov.ru
In the 18th century, before the first marches of the Russian Cossacks to Kolyma Krai, the region's territory was inhabited mainly by Lamuts; the oldest ethnic group is called Yukagirs. The rare aborigines were mainly engaged in hunting and fishing.
The administrative subordination of Kolyma and Chukchi lands has changed multiple times. Thus, at the beginning of the XX century, almost the entire territory of the future Magadan Region, including Chukotka, was a part of Primorsky region; since 1909 it was a part of Kamchatka region.
Basically, the history of the future Magadan Region began in the 1920s, after scientific and geological survey expeditions arrived to Kolyma to explore the gold-bearing deposits. In 1932, a workers' settlement, later converted into a city, was founded in the valley of the Magadan River. Magadan Region was founded in 1953. Its structure included the city of Magadan, 6 districts, and Chukotka National District. At that time, regular Magadan-Moscow flights began; the Palace of Sports construction was completed, and the TV studio started broadcasting. The construction of the Kolyma hydroelectric power plant began in the 1970s and was finished in 2007. In 1992, Chukotka Autonomous District left the Magadan Region.
By its geographical location, the region refers to the regions of the Far North, which features severe climate and considerable remoteness of this zone from the central regions of the Russian Federation. The distance from Magadan to Moscow by motor roads makes 9709 km.
Eight time zones separate the region from the time zone of the Russian capital.
Magadan Region lies in the northeastern edge of the Asian continent and is a vast territory with complex and diverse relief, washed from the south-east by the cold waters of the Sea of Okhotsky which is a part of the Pacific Ocean.
Magadan Region is located in the north-eastern part of the Russian Federation. From the south-east the region borders Kamchatka Krai, from the west - Khabarovsk Krai, from the north-west - the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), from the north-east - Chukotka Autonomous Region. The land borders stretch across the mountain areas, while the southern border between the Magadan Region and the countries of the Asia-Pacific basin is a sea border.
Magadan Region is sometimes called “The Golden Kolyma”; this is one of the largest and the richest in mineral resources regions of the Russian Federation. The region is among the ten largest regions of the country in terms of potential resources of the mineral raw materials.
One of the most promising fields of the mining industry development is implementation of the project on prospecting and industrial development of oil and gas fields of the Magadan shelf zone.
Industrial development of the Magadan Region began in 1928. Over this time, the region produced more than 3 thousand tons of gold, more than 10 thousand tons of silver, about 72.5 thousand tons of tin, more than 83 million tons of hard coal. Lead mining (as a side line of silver mining at silver deposits) has been resumed in the territory of the region in 2012.
The region's territory is located in two severe zones of the Far North - tundra and forest-tundra. Specific features of these zones include excessive moisture, cold summers, and snowy winters. Almost the entire territory of the Magadan Region is located in the permafrost zone.
By thermal conditions of winter, this zone includes two types of climate: distinctly continental (subarctic) climate with severe winters and moderate continental, marine climate with moderately severe winters.
The region's mean temperature of January makes -27 degrees; mean temperature of July reaches +30 degrees. Precipitation rate makes 20 mm in January and 60 mm in July.
The winter in the Magadan Region lasts from 6 months in the south up to 7.5 months in the north. Stable snow cover is observed, on the average, by mid-October.
The region territory can be divided into four groups of natural complexes: tundra, forest tundra, light forest larch taiga, and highland rocky deserts. Typical local tree species is larch - the matchless by frost resistance and the most light-demanding coniferous tree. The other trees growing in the region include fragrant poplar (Populus suaveolens), Daurian larch, dwarf birch, other species of birch, cedar tree, and many shrubs.
The local fauna is very diverse. The region is populated by Siberian wild reindeer, elk, brown bear, musk deer, Verkhoyansk snow sheep, glutton, fox, wolf, lynx, ermine, hare, sable, squirrel, chipmunk, field mouse, lemming, black-capped marmot, long-tailed Siberian souslik.
There are many species of birds in the region. There are many large sea animals in the seas: whales, killer whales, dolphins, seals, ringed seals, sea lions, as well as many species of commercial fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Grayling, sucker, pilot fish, pike, great Siberian sturgeon, Kamchatka salmon, Leonidov char, as well as species of Pacific salmon — chum salmon, hunchback salmon, blue-backed salmon, quinnat, and silver salmon can be found in the rivers.
The territory of the Magadan Region is covered mainly by gley and podzolic soils. Permafrost is very widespread and causes swamping of many valleys as it prevents the penetration of water into the depths of the soil.
The region is populated by more than 80 ethnic groups including small population groups of indigenous peoples (Evens,Koryaks, Itelmens and other).
The structure of the Magadan Region consists of 82 administrative and territorial including: 1 city of the regional significance (the city of Magadan), 1 city of district significance (the city of Susuman), 8 districts, 24 urban settlements, 48 rural settlements.
The Magadan Region's economy is based on three industries accounting for more than 95% of the industrial production: mining, electricity and water production and distribution, fisheries and fish processing. The sectors of building and agriculture are slightly developed.
By gold mining, Magadan Region takes the lead among the federal subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District. The region has been the undisputed leader of silver mining in Russia. The key prospects of the region are closely related to its subsoil and exploration of new indigenous deposits of gold and silver, industrial deposits of copper, molybdenum, tin, and tungsten.
Fish farming is one of the basic industries of the region; the products are sold not only in the domestic market of Russia, but are also exported to the United States, China, Japan, Korea. Pollock, herring, cod, halibut, navaga, flounder, salmon fishes form the basis of the potential sea bioresources in the zones of possible fishing and have the greatest specific weight in fish yields of the regional enterprises. Non-fish objects of catching are crabs, shrimps, whelks.
The education system is formed by 58 schools, 9 establishments of secondary vocational education, and 3 universities.
There are 2 theatres in the Magadan Region (music and drama theatre and a puppet theatre), 5 museums, 48 libraries, and 13 children's art schools.
Until 1986, there were no religious organizations registered in the territory of the region, and there were no places of worship, whether open or closed. Since 1991, the process of formation and registration of religious organizations has intensified. Now there are 44 religious organizations in the region. 75.9% of the population are Orthodox, 2.9% profess Islam, 1.9% - Catholicism, 1.6% - Protestantism, 0.3% - Buddhism.
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